Gaza / Israel: Asamblea General de Naciones Unidas por abrumadora mayoría adopta resolución pidiendo alto a la violencia en Gaza

» Por Nicolas Boeglin - Profesor de Derecho Internacional Público de la Facultad de Derecho Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR)

Este 27 de octubre, la Asamblea General de Naciones Unidas adoptó una resolución titulada “Protection of civilians and upholding legal and humanitarian obligations” pidiendo una tregua humanitaria inmediata en las hostilidades en Gaza, llamando a suplir inmediatamente de electricidad y agua a la población civil en Gaza, y exigiendo a ambos bandos a respetar el derecho internacional humanitario en las acciones militares que realizan en Gaza y a resguardar a la población civil (véase nota de prensa oficial de Naciones Unidas).

El contenido de la resolución en breve

En los dos puntos resolutivos iniciales de los 14 contenidos en el texto, se lee que la Asamblea General:

“1. Calls for an immediate, durable and sustained humanitarian truce leading to a cessation of hostilities; 
 
2. Demands that all parties immediately and fully comply with their obligations under international law, including international humanitarian law and international human rights law, particularly in regard to the protection of civilians and civilian objects, as well as the protection of humanitarian personnel, persons hors de combat, and humanitarian facilities and assets, and to enable and facilitate humanitarian access for essential supplies and services to reach all civilians in need in the Gaza Strip”.
 
En el punto 5 resolutivo se precisa además que la Asamblea General exige a Israel suspender la orden de evacuación dada en los siguientes términos:
5. Also calls for the rescinding of the order by Israel, the occupying Power, for Palestinian civilians and United Nations staff, as well as humanitarian and medical workers, to evacuate all areas in the Gaza Strip north of the Wadi Gaza and relocate to southern Gaza, recalls and reiterates that civilians are protected under international humanitarian law and should receive humanitarian assistance wherever they are, and reiterates the need to take appropriate steps to ensure the safety and well-being of civilians, in particular children, and their protection, and allowing their safe movement;
 
El tema de los rehenes se encuentra tratado en el punto resolutivo 7 en el que se indica que la Asamblea
7. Calls for the immediate and unconditional release of all civilians who are being illegally held captive, demanding their safety, well-being and humane treatment in compliance with international law“;

El texto integral de la resolución adoptada se reproduce al final de esta nota, en su versión en inglés, única disponible por el momento (tarde del 27 de octubre).

Una resolución en la Asamblea General ante el persistente bloqueo del Consejo de Seguridad

Se trata de una resolución del órgano plenario (193 Estados Miembros) que se adopta ante la imposibilidad  dentro del Consejo de Seguridad de Naciones Unidas (15 Estados) de consensuar un texto: en efecto, este último lleva ya cuatro intentos para pronunciarse sobre lo que ocurre en Israel y en Gaza desde el 7 de octubre sin lograr poner de acuerdo a sus 15 integrantes.

Al respecto, tuvimos la ocasión de explicar el alcance del sorpresivo veto de Estados Unidos a la propuesta de Brasil, objeto de un único voto en contra (Estados Unidos) pese a contar con 12 votos favorables y dos abstenciones (Rusia y Reino Unido): véase al respecto nuestra nota titulada: “Gaza / Israel: breves reflexiones con relación al veto de Estados Unidos al proyecto de resolución en el seno del Consejo de Seguridad presentado por Brasil“.

El voto en breve

El texto adoptado este 27 de octubre por la Asamblea General lo fue con 120 votos a favor, 14 votas en contra, y 45 abstenciones, tal y como lo detalla el tablero de votación que a continuación se reproduce:

Es de notar que, tal como previsto, en América Latina, Guatemala fue el único en votar en contra, con un voto en contra adicional inesperado: Paraguay. Esta vez, Israel no logró encontrar un voto proveniente de Centroamérica, como en ocasiones anteriores.

Al tiempo que Israel (y su fiel aliado norteamericano) pudieron convencer en Europa únicamente a Austria, Croatia, Hungría y República Checa a votar en contra. Ningún Estado de Afríca ni de Asia votó en contra del texto adoptado, que fue inicialmente propuesto por Jordania.

Únicamente Israel pudo contra con el voto negativo de lo que se denomina la “coalición” que históricamente acompaña a Israel y a Estados Unidos en este tipo de contiendas diplomáticas, a saber: Islas Marshall, Micronesia, Nauru y Tonga.

Es de notar que 14 Estados optaron por el “No Show” (ausencia del delegado a la hora registrarse el voto).

Por primera desde muchos años, Canadá opta esta vez por abstenerse, en vez de votar con Israel y Estados Unidos, al igual que ocurrió con el delegado de Palau.

Un dramático recuento de personas fallecidas y heridas 

El último estado de situación al 26 de octubre del 2023 elaborado por la Oficina de Coordinación para Asuntos Humanitarios de Naciones Unidas (OCHA, véase enlace oficial) indica el saldo siguiente desde que inició el conteo de personas fallecidas y heridas el 7 de octubre en Israel y en Gaza:

– del lado palestino, se registran en Gaza, 7028 personas fallecidas y 18.482 personas heridas, a las que hay que añadir  – en Cisjordania –  103 fallecidos y 1956 heridos; mientras que

– del lado israelí, se contabilizan 1400 personas fallecidas y 5431 heridas, así como una muerte en Gaza (y  11 personas heridas) y una muerte en Cisjordania (y 3 personas heridas).

Se lee en este documento que son más de 2900 los niños fallecidos  en Gaza, y más de 1700 las mujeres que han fallecido desde el pasado 7 de octubre en Gaza:

Since 7 October, 7,028 Palestinians have been killed, including at least 2,913 children and 1,709 women, and about 18,482 have been injured, according to the MoH in Gaza.  

Additionally, about 1,600 people, including at least 900 children, have been reported missing and may be trapped or dead under the rubble, awaiting rescue or recovery. Rescue teams, primarily from the Palestinian Civil Defense, are struggling to carry out their mission, amid continuous airstrikes, severe shortage of fuel to run vehicles and equipment, and with limited or no connection to mobile networks.  

According to the MoH in Gaza, as of 26 October, 171 Palestinian families had lost ten or more of their members, 124 Palestinian families had lost 6 to 9 members, and 436 families had lost two to five of their members“.

A modo de conclusión

La posición aislada de Estados Unidos en el seno del Consejo de Seguridad el pasado 18 de octubre, y ahora, su reiterada oposición a la adopción de este texto adoptado en la Asamblea General este 27 de octubre, evidencian su compromiso total con Israel.

El hecho que además de Estados Unidos e Israel, 12 Estados hayan instruido a sus delegados a votar en contra de esta resolución no disimula en lo más mínimo este aislamiento norteamericano, que profundiza esta vez, de forma notoria, la abstención de Canadá.

Esta situación no puede sino tender a exacerbar aún más los ánimos de multitudes frente a sedes diplomáticas norteamericanas en los próximos días, mientras circulen más imágenes del drama absoluto al que la población civil palestina de Gaza se ve sometida por parte de las fuerzas militares israelíes desde la tarde/noche del 7 de octubre del 2023.

Documento / Material  – Resolución adoptada el 27 de octubre del 2023 – versión en inglés – Proyecto de resolución A/ES-10/L.25

Protection of civilians and upholding legal and humanitarian obligations 

The General Assembly, 

Guided by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, 

Recalling its relevant resolutions regarding the question of Palestine, 

Reaffirming the obligation to respect and ensure respect for international humanitarian law in all circumstances in accordance with article 1 of the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, 

Recalling the relevant resolutions of the Security Council, including resolutions 242 (1967) of 22 November 1967, 338 (1973) of 22 October 1973, 446 (1979) of 22 March 1979, 452 (1979) of 20 July 1979, 465 (1980) of 1 March 1980, 476 (1980) of 30 June 1980, 478 (1980) of 20 August 1980, 904 (1994) of 18 March 1994, 1397 (2002) of 12 March 2002, 1515 (2003) of 19 November 2003, 1850 (2008) of 16 December 2008, 1860 (2009) of 8 January 2009 and 2334 (2016) of 23 December 2016, 

Recalling also Security Council resolutions on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, including on children and armed conflict, 

Expressing grave concern at the latest escalation of violence since the 7 October 2023 attack and the grave deterioration of the situation in the region, in particular in the Gaza Strip and the rest of the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and in Israel, to southern Gaza, 

Condemning all acts of violence aimed at Palestinian and Israeli civilians, including all acts of terrorism and indiscriminate attacks, as well as all acts of provocation, incitement and destruction, 

Recalling the need to uphold the principles of distinction, necessity, proportionality and precaution in the conduct of hostilities, 

Emphasizing that civilians must be protected, in accordance with international humanitarian law and international human rights law, and deploring in this regard the heavy civilian casualties and widespread destruction, 

Emphasizing also the need to pursue accountability, and stressing in this regard the importance of ensuring independent and transparent investigations in accordance with international standards, 

Expressing grave concern at the catastrophic humanitarian situation in the Gaza Strip and at its vast consequences for the civilian population, largely comprising children, and underlining the need for full, immediate, safe, unhindered and sustained humanitarian access, 

Expressing strong support for the efforts of the Secretary-General and for his calls for the immediate and unrestricted access of humanitarian aid to respond to the most basic needs of the Palestinian civilian population in the Gaza Strip, underlining the Secretary-General’s message that food, water, medicine and fuel need to be sustained and at scale, and expressing its appreciation for the critical role played by Egypt in this regard, 

Expressing strong support also for all regional and international efforts aimed at achieving an immediate cessation of hostilities, ensuring the protection of civilians and providing humanitarian aid,

  1. Calls for an immediate, durable and sustained humanitarian truce leading to a cessation of hostilities; 
  1. Demands that all parties immediately and fully comply with their obligations under international law, including international humanitarian law and international human rights law, particularly in regard to the protection of civilians and civilian objects, as well as the protection of humanitarian personnel, persons hors de combat, and humanitarian facilities and assets, and to enable and facilitate humanitarian access for essential supplies and services to reach all civilians in need in the Gaza Strip; 
  1. Also demands the immediate, continuous, sufficient and unhindered provision of essential goods and services to civilians throughout the Gaza Strip, including but not limited to water, food, medical supplies, fuel and electricity, stressing the imperative, under international humanitarian law, of ensuring that civilians are not deprived of objects indispensable to their survival; 
  1. Calls for immediate, full, sustained, safe and unhindered humanitarian access for the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East and other United Nations humanitarian agencies and their implementing partners, the International Committee of the Red Cross and all other humanitarian organizations upholding humanitarian principles and delivering urgent assistance to civilians in the Gaza Strip, encourages the establishment of humanitarian corridors and other initiatives to facilitate the delivery of humanitarian aid to civilians, and welcomes efforts in this regard; 
  1. Also calls for the rescinding of the order by Israel, the occupying Power, for Palestinian civilians and United Nations staff, as well as humanitarian and medical workers, to evacuate all areas in the Gaza Strip north of the Wadi Gaza and relocate to southern Gaza, recalls and reiterates that civilians are protected under international humanitarian law and should receive humanitarian assistance wherever they are, and reiterates the need to take appropriate steps to ensure the safety and well-being of civilians, in particular children, and their protection, and allowing their safe movement;
  1. Firmly rejects any attempts at the forced transfer of the Palestinian civilian population; 
  1. Calls for the immediate and unconditional release of all civilians who are being illegally held captive, demanding their safety, well-being and humane treatment in compliance with international law; 
  1. Also calls for respect and protection, consistent with international humanitarian law, of all civilian and humanitarian facilities, including hospitals and other medical facilities, as well as their means of transport and equipment, schools, places of worship and United Nations facilities, as well as all of humanitarian and medical personnel and journalists, media professionals and associated personnel, in armed conflict in the region; 
  1. Stresses the particularly grave impact that armed conflict has on women and children, including as refugees and displaced persons, as well as on other civilians who may have specific vulnerabilities, including persons with disabilities and older persons; 
  1. Also stresses the need to urgently establish a mechanism to ensure the protection of the Palestinian civilian population, in accordance with international law and the relevant United Nations resolutions; 
  1. Further stresses the importance of a humanitarian notification mechanism to ensure the protection of United Nations facilities and all humanitarian installations, and to ensure the unimpeded movement of aid convoys; 
  1. Emphasizes the importance of preventing further destabilization and escalation of violence in the region, and in this regard calls upon all parties to exercise maximum restraint and upon all those with influence on them to work toward this objective; 
  1. Reaffirms that a just and lasting solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict can only be achieved by peaceful means, based on the relevant United Nations resolutions and in accordance with international law, and on the basis of the two-State solution; 
  1. Decides to adjourn the tenth emergency special session temporarily and to authorize the President of the General Assembly at its most recent session to resume its meeting upon request from Member States.

Los artículos de opinión aquí publicados no reflejan necesariamente la posición editorial de EL MUNDO. Cualquier persona interesada en publicar un artículo de opinión en este medio puede hacerlo, enviando el texto con nombre completo, foto en PDF de la cédula de identidad por ambos lados y número de teléfono al correo redaccion@elmundo.cr, o elmundocr@gmail.com.

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